On the part of the body, the predisposing factors of balantidiasis are: any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, gastritis - a violation of salt productionnoic acid in this disease contributes to the penetration of balantidia into the intestine; chronic diseases of the liver and gallbladder (hepatitis B, cholecystitis, gallstone disease) - they reduce the bactericidal properties of the digestive system, "passing" the parasite into the intestines. Intestinal lesions in balantidiasis include changes in the mucosal folds of reglan, sigmoid, and rectum. Initial disorders are in the nature of edema and hyperemia (redness) of the mucosa, then ulcers form with foci of necrosis (necrosis) and hemorrhages. In children, balantidiasis occurs in an acute form, in the future, the course of the disease becomes a chronic-recurrent process. With a weakened immune system, in addition to the symptoms of parasitosis, anemia, weight loss, impaired water-salt balance, dehydration and symptoms of intoxication are observed. If during the period of the acute course of the disease in children from one to three years of metoclopramide pills, treatment is not carried out on time, then the disease can end fatally.
Balantidia are the largest ciliates among other protozoan pathogens that live in the intestines. During the period of active life, they can reach 50-80 microns in length and 35-60 microns in width. The shape of the parasites is often oval or ovoid. Their bodies are covered with a thin shell - pellicle. It helps to keep the shape of the balantidia bodies and provides them with numerous holes. At the stage of active reproduction (in the vegetative form), the surface of parasites is covered with cilia, which play the role of organs of movement. Balantidia feed through an opening at the anterior end of the body. From it, food particles penetrate into the endoplasm. There, vacuoles form around these particles, in which digestion takes place. Undigested food is expelled through the anal pore into the host.
When it enters the large intestine, an adult comes out of the cysts. It secretes a special enzyme - hyaluronidase, which helps to dissolve the intestinal mucosa and penetrate the parasite into the intestinal wall, forming ulcers. In the lower intestines, adult parasites again turn into cysts, getting into the external environment.
The appendix (an appendage of the large intestine) is often involved in the development of the disease, which leads to the development of acute appendicitis. Parasites can also enter the lungs through the abdominal cavity and diaphragm, causing pneumonia. The waste products of balantidia enter the portal vein, through which they are transferred to the liver. Because of this, fat begins to accumulate in hepatocytes (liver cells) and steatosis and cloudy swelling of the liver gradually develop. These changes in the structure of the liver cause a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, the production of proteins, the deposition of minerals and the neutralization of toxic products.
Harmful substances and decay products are absorbed into the blood, leading to intoxication of the whole organism, disruption of the kidneys, myocardium (heart muscle) and the central nervous system. Classification and stages of development of balantidiasis. According to the severity of the course, balantidiasis is mild, moderate and severe.
A mild form of the disease occurs with subfebrile temperature (37.1-38.0 ° C), the frequency of Metoclopramide 10mg is up to five times a day, it may contain an admixture of mucus and streaks of blood. Symptoms of intoxication are mild, appetite is slightly reduced, abdominal pain is moderate. During the examination in the clinical analysis of blood, insignificant changes are observed.